News Leadership 3.0

Posts tagged with: Journalism

November 11, 2009

Six trends in community journalism

American University and J-Lab produce a study about how the movement to create entrepreneurial community Web sites may changing the rules of engagement with news.

American University just completed a mini-study of women news consumers and women who have created news Web sites. The research, by Assistant Professor Maria Ivancin in partnership with J-Lab, offers an intriguing glimpse of changes under way as a new ecosystem of news forms online.

Ivancin described these findings (based on focus groups and interviews):

1. Community journalism is evolving as an exercise in participation, not merely observation. “It’s not just covering community, it’s actually being the community,” Ivancin said this week at J-Lab’s New Media Women Entrepreneurs summit.

2. The traditional emphasis on objectivity is giving way to a focus on broader definitions of news and the inclusion of different voices. New media site founders often felt “objectivity really is not truthful. Top down objectivity you really don’t have an understanding of what’s happening in your community. They felt objectivity can come in a different way, from participation,” she said.

3. Building community rather than simply covering community is the impetus for launching community news sites. “It’s not just looking at what’s happening. It’s doing things to change that community, help that community.”

4. Community news sites rise to fill gaps in news coverage. “There is an unfulfilled need. Whether the local paper was not covering it, or no longer covered it….  The need can be geographic, the need can be audience based or interest based,” Ivancin said. One news site creator called it a need for “a community water cooler.”

5. New media entrepreneurs are motivated by a frustration with old media’s pace of innovation and change. “New media creators saw the changes as opportunities whereas they thought traditional media saw them as threats,” Ivancin. “The competition did not look kindly at these” news startups, including one outlet that r an editorial attaching the new site.

6. News site creators and consumers express excitement and regret over changes confronting established media. People said they “miss the pleasure of reading the newspaper,” and worry that the ability to select news will mean people don’t get the fuller picture provided in the newspaper, Ivancin said.  Also, it’s more difficult to to judge credibility. New media creators are concerned about losing investigative reporting. Benefits include speed and convenience, more voices and perspectives, selectivity and ability to get depth on topics of most interest, she said.


It will be interesting and important to see whether these trends hold true as traditional media outlets shrink and new experiments come onto the field. Certainly developments in community media are important to established news organizations. The start ups change the playing field of media in many communities and they may be harbingers of new attitudes and practices that traditional journalists and news outlets will want to adopt to stay relevant and fulfill the role of town forum.

January 07, 2010

Five trends to track in 2010

The news industry will continue to struggle this year, but we should get some clarity about pay walls, the role of community news start ups, social media, metrics of engagement, and statehouse coverage

Confusion is likely to reign in the news industry for at least another year, but I think we may start to get some clarity on several fronts:


1. Charging for access to content. More news organizations are likely to take start charging for content and I hope those trials give us more clarity on what works and what doesn’t. We know from the Wall Street Journal that a publisher can charge for specialized content that is seen as having high financial value. It also seems likely that a few local news organizations may be able to charge. But there are a lot of If’s for that: If the content is consistently unique (i.e. no competition) and relevant (i.e. performs a service for users), if free boot-strap competition doesn’t enter the market, and if advertisers don’t balk at a reduction in eyeballs looking at their ads. I do not think Rupert Murdoch’s plans to put News Corp content behind a paywall and a search wall are likely to work. But I hope he tries it. Either failure or success produces more clarity for the rest of us.


2. Social media.
I hope more mainstream news organizations will move past merely using social networks to promote their content and tap into rich opportunities to engage users where they live, whether it’s Twitter, Facebook, and to help users navigate local connections. I have consulted with a couple of major news organizations that are looking to take on a role as community aggregater or news hub, and I am eager to see their projects unfold this year. As well, Knight Foundation is funding J-Lab’s Networked Journalism Project, which partners five established news organizations with local and neighborhood news sites. Meanwhile, Gov 2.0 may pick up some of the slack in informing citizens left by newsroom cutbacks.


3. Metrics.
Increased sophistication about social media may also prompt local news organizations to shift from worship at the Church of Search Engine Optimization, which brings eyeballs from around the globe, to fashioning themselves primarily as networks that engage and serve local users - the ones most of their advertisers really want to reach. Not to say SEO is a bad thing. But as a primary emphasis it seems to get in the way of doing the hard work of really connecting with local users. A shift will require a new way to measure connections with and relevance to users rather than relying primarily on counting unique visitors.


4. Local news startups.
The media landscape is dotted with neighborhood and community news sites. Some, like West Seattle Blog, are demonstrating that user loyalty and a focus on highly local advertising, add up to a modest business model. Others, like Oakland Local, demonstrate the power of community building, social media expertise and tech savvy. In 2010, we’ll get a clearer picture of the capacity and sustainability of these more sophisticated yet lean start ups.

5. Statehouse reporting.
This very significant victim of newsroom cutbacks—particularly sharp among large metros and state newspapers that have traditionally staffed state capitol bureaus—has not escaped the attention of foundations in several states and we’ll soon see more funding commitments. Texas Tribune is leading the way, with a professional staff and grants from Houston Endowment and the Knight Foundation. The just launched California Watch also has foundation support. Perhaps foundation funding is only a temporary solution but it will help keep statehouses honest for the time being.

What trends do you think we should be tracking this year? Please add your thoughts in the comments. Thank you.

 

January 14, 2010

10 lessons from NPR’s digital transformation

Ellen Weiss, VP News at National Public Radio describes what she and her organization have learned about change in the past two years

(USC journalism graduate student Nikki Usher sat in on the Knight Digital Media Center’s Strategic Leadership Summit for Public Radio Stations, held last month in conjunction with National Public Radio and funded by Knight Foundation. I asked her to write about key takeaways.)

By Nikki Usher

National Public Radio is clearly an organization looking to make radical transformations as it moves from being a radio network to a multiplatform news provider.

What has NPR learned from trying to rethink its digital strategy? Ellen Weiss, Senior Vice President for News offered ten lessons from two years in the change trenches that may be useful to other news organizations:

1. There is no end state. The transition will take a long time and no one anywhere has figured this all out. For the transition to happen, managers have to be part of the conversation.

2. Be realistic about how much multimedia you can handle
and train for. Writing is multimedia when you are a broadcast organization.  NPR brought its training back to reality - away from video and to things people could take back to their jobs: how to take a good picture, what’s the mix of writing, blog writing, writing for the web vs. writing for print.

3. Communicate.Weiss held three Q&A sessions a month to help explain to staffers the plans and the process and to give staff a chance to ask questions.

4. Test and learn. Repeat.  Stop things that aren’t working. Realize that lots of people through the organization are going to do things differently and try new things in different ways. Don’t be afraid to reorganize the newsroom (NPR has done this - twice). Be strategic about every hire you have.

5. Do not play into Web versus radio competition.
(Or, to extend on Ellen’s thoughts, for other newsrooms, Web v. print, or web v. broadcast). Geography matters.  Seat people together. Bring digital and editorial staff together. Remind people they are delivering the audience, not one audience versus another audience.

6. Demonstrate your affection and enthusiasm for digital work. People will follow your lead, if you acknowledge the good work.

7. Make tough decisions about what you want to stop.
NPR stopped the Bryant Park Project, but started Planet Money. Planet Money, a big success, benefited from Weiss and others willingness to let the podcast/blog experiment and develop into what it is now.

8. Be transparent about metrics
and educate your staff. Counter the fear that work is going to be driven by getting the hottest number or different editorial standards.

9. Listen to people’s concerns
, don’t try to downplay them. Look for early adapters. Weiss won’t accept anyone not writing for web, but when it comes to social media, she trusts that buzz in the newsroom will build and grab people interested in it.

10. Have reasonable expectations
. You can’t do everything, pick a few things and try to do them well. Give people the support they need to do these things well.


Weiss and two other NPR executives, Kinsey Wilson, senior vice president and general manager for digital news, and Dick Meyer, NPR’s executive editor for news, shared some of their visions with the public radio group.

They stressed the importance of NPR being more than a destination site with multimedia like CNN or the Washington Post. NPR’s focus is on being a nimble site adapted to the new forms of the Internet that recognizes the advantages of audio, social media, niche sites/verticals and mobile platforms.

A big step for NPR has been to produce continuous news and information in what Kinsey Wilson called “real time” or the “price of information on the real clock not on programming time,” an effort which has taken 18 months of Knight training, retraining and hiring staff, and rethinking digital strategy. The goal is not to “match CNN” but to have NPR’s own sensibility and story selection to breaking news on internet time.

January 21, 2010

Don’t “over Twitter” and other social media tips for news organizations

Media strategist Steve Safran says news organizations must straddle two worlds - the traditional one of producing news and the new one as a player on social networks. Here are his tips for success.

(USC journalism graduate student Nikki Usher sat in on the Knight Digital Media Center’s Strategic Leadership Summit for Public Radio Stations, held last month in conjunction with National Public Radio and funded by Knight Foundation. I asked her to write about key takeaways.)

By Nikki Usher

Steve Safran, a media strategist at Media Reinvent, offered key take-home lessons for news organizations looking to improve their online presence:

1. The Twitter Effect.

Safran advised public radio stations not to get bogged down in numbers of Twitter followers. He highlighted Boston public radio station WBUR, which has 4,300 or so followers. But, Safran pointed out, Twitterers have “spheres of influence.”
The average twitter user, according to Safran, has 126 followers. WBUR has 4,385 followers, but if all of them retweet, that means another 552,510 people may pay attention to WBUR. In a magic world, if all those people retweeted WBUR, you could get 69 million WBUR mentions. “Small beginnings are OK,” he said.
Safran’s number one tip for Twitterers: don’t over tweet. Keep it short, and don’t over promote.
“Audiences want their information as micro as possible,” Safran said. “You are using other people’s mobile text money, so make it worth their money.”

2. Media 1.0 vs. Media 2.0

News organizations are in a funny spot. They are original content providers and they must play in social media.
Media 1.0 is: one way, mass media, top/down, a closed network,  (e.g. not sharing APIs, no comments on a site), hierarchical, passive, macromedia, and bundled.
Media 2.0 is: interactive, direct, bottom-up, open network, collaborative, active, micromedia, and self- bundling.
News organizations shouldn’t get rid of media 1.0 - that’s what audience come to them for - but they do need to change. Safran offered the word “simulpath” - how to keep changes occurring while things are already in progress.
He suggested:
* Unbundle content for consumption anywhere
* Build interactive applications into brand extension platforms
* Make content available for mobile distribution
* Create widgets to provide content on other Web sites in the market
* Own RSS and offer many feeds
* Launch a branded RSS reader

3. Connecting outside the news organization

News organizations, thanks to the world of Media 2.0, aren’t in their own mass media world anymore. Instead, they are part of a larger information ecosystem. And they are also part of a local community.
Safran stressed the importance of a news organization becoming a local information hub as well as an aggregator for content by users.
He suggested news organizations organize local bloggers and the local Web, build and maintain a database of local Web sites, help users create participatory content, and build standalone, niche web sites.
Niche channels are key, as Safran pointed out. “Blogs are the single best search engine optimized content out there.”
His final suggestion for news organizations was to “aggregate, aggregate, aggregate.”

4. Building hits and attracting users

“You don’t want to be best radio web site - you want to be best multimedia outlet,” Safran told public radio executives.
What does that mean for news organizations? It means giving audiences news as it happens in new and novel ways - especially in times of breaking news. Consider new blogs, mashups, and simply blowing up home pages, as CBS8 did with the California Wildfires a couple of years ago. 
And news orgs shouldn’t be afraid to be the gathering place for competing information sites, such as adding feeds from the LA Fire Department.
The web also means writing differently. Search engine optimization, according to Safran, isn’t a magical science. It’s just using easily googled words over and over again so that your site comes up first - if you’re writing about a local fire, include the name, place and site of the fire so anyone searching for information will stumble upon it.
“Keywords are marketing,” Safran said.
He offered some key suggestions:
* Write literal headlines
* Think: How would my friends search this?
* Link out like crazy: Start with two links per story
* Keep updating as the story changes
* Use lots of RSS feeds
Safran reminded public radio leaders most traffic comes from search or aggregators, not from using the home page as a destination. So news outlets are really competing to be the RSS feed of choice.

February 18, 2010

A new multimedia guide for journalists

Mark Luckie’s “The Digital Journalist’s Handbook” brings a lot of the wisdom from his 10000 Words blog to a bookstore near you.

(I am a longtime fan of Mark Luckie’s popular 10000 Words blog. I became an even bigger fan as I watched (online) Mark lose his job in December 2008, get up, dust himself off and keep blogging.  Mark’s newly released book looks like a great resource for journalists and I asked him to write a guest post explaining who the book was for and why.)

By: Mark S. Luckie

As newsrooms everywhere cut staff and resources in the hope of maintaining financial stability, many more journalists are flocking to multimedia training workshops like those organized by the Knight Digital Media Center. It was while working as a multimedia trainer for KDMC that I first recognized that there was no offline guide for journalists who wanted to learn digital skills. Seasoned online journalists are undoubtedly familiar with the many websites that provide online resources and tutorials, but there are some journalists - as there are some readers - who prefer reading information in print.

A few years later, I started work on “http://www.amazon.com/Digital-Journalists-Handbook-Mark-Luckie/product-reviews/1450565603” title=“The Digital Journalist’s Handbook”>The Digital Journalist’s Handbook,” a guide to the tools and technologies journalists must be familiar with and use in today’s digital newsrooms.

I started writing the book after I was laid off from my multimedia producer position along with many other staff from around the newsroom. During the subsequent job-hunting process, it was very clear that most of the newsroom positions I applied for required journalists to have some technical skill or knowledge of multimedia. However, many journalists do not have access to training workshops, so I wrote the book with the intent of providing a resource to journalist who want to learn new media skills and incorporate them into their reporting.

“The Digital Journalist’s Handbook” is written so it is easy to follow and so that even the most non-technical journalist can understand, yet it contains information that both novice and veteran journalists can use. It also includes charts, diagrams, a glossary, and links to online tutorials and resources for journalists to further their education.

The book is a representation of my faith that despite the layoffs, the furloughs, the budget cuts, and the closings, journalism will still thrive. Together we can make this transition, improve our reporting, and build a sustainable future.

 

August 16, 2010

Goodbye horse race: A formula for citizen-focused campaign coverage

As news organizations struggle for relevance and engagement, Jay Rosen’s “The Citizens Agenda in Campaign Coverage” revives a way for journalists to produce stories that mean something to voters.

The more things change, the more they stay the same. No kidding. If the latest dispatches from the campaign trail are any indication, we could be back in the 90s (or 80s or ...).

The horse race - who’s up today, what’s the marketing strategy, who has the most money to spend, and the fact-challenged barbs and counter-barbs - dominates much of what passes for elections coverage even in the pre-Labor Day going. It is, as Jay Rosen once said, as if news media believe citizens want above all to be spectators at their own bamboozlement. (Disclaimer: I report this comment from memory of over 15 years ago, and I want to attribute the idea. but it’s definitely “Jay said something like this.”)

This week, Rosen brought back a radical departure for campaign coverage that a few news organizations, notably The Charlotte Observer under editor Rich Oppel, tried in the 1990s. “The Citizens Agenda in Campaign Coverage” is not all that complicated.

The basic idea is for journalists to ask citizens what issue they want the candidates to address during the campaign, create an advisory group to help you hone the list, publish it, and use it to guide your coverage - including questions you ask candidates to address. Read Jay’s 10-step list here, and then come back, because I have a few additional suggestions.

In the 90s, few newspapers tried to create citizens’ agenda. Rosen says he thinks political journalists just didn’t want to do it. That’s part of it - the lure of conflict and the comfort of familiar practice (not to mention some journalist arrogance) run strong. I also recall that the old guard of the newspaper industry freaked out at any assertion that citizens might be better equipped to create an agenda than editors were. But those days and that old guard are gone. Now, the Web offers opportunities to deploy Rosen’s plan even more effectively.

We attempted a version of this plan at The Oregonian during the 1996 presidential campaign, when I was politics editor. Based on that long-ago experience, I have some suggestions to add to Jay’s excellent list:

- Set benchmarks for how much of your coverage will be devoted to issues on your citizens’ agenda. Make it more than half. Heck, try 75 percent. When we tried this back in the 90s, we had two open pages a day for campaign coverage (those were the days, right?). At least one full page had to be issues coverage. If we produced less, we reduced the amount of space overall for politics that day. What happened: This forced is to plan and devote reporter talent to issues coverage first and build the rest around it. On the Web, space may be less of a determinant, but you can use story counts.

- Write only briefs about daily doings, including the horse race and campaign strategy. Develop a series of questions to ask when considering expanding one of these stories. The key question: Does a closer look contribute to the citizens’ agenda or better understanding important issues and the qualifications of the candidate? If not, keep it brief.

- Assign a reporter to analyze campaign ads and statements and create a graphic that keeps content tight and forces the reporter to fact-check the advertising. Do the research and take a stand about what’s accurate and what’s not accurate, rather than relying on the opposition to shoot it down.

Sound like good political journalism? Let’s hope some of you give it a try. (And please let me know if you do.)

October 25, 2010

SPJ and digital media: Start with learning, collaboration

The new strategic report from the Society of Professional Journalists’ Digital Media Committee, Will SPJ Remain Relevant in the Digital Age?, contains some good ideas for how the oldest journalism organization can continue to contribute value.

It’s laudable that SPJ wishes to extend its legacy of leadership into the frontier of digital media. But there’s a catch: Right now, like many journalism-focused organizations, SPJ lags notably in digital media. It’s pretty hard to lead from behind.

One way SPJ (and other journalism organizations) might address this problem is to put learning and collaboration ahead of leadership, for now…

By Amy Gahran

The strategic report recommends several steps SPJ might take which could prove useful eventually, such as:

  • “Take stands on hot-button digital media issues affecting the future of information sharing. Become an advocate for expanding access to the Internet, news and information.”
  • “Train media start-ups in entrepreneurial journalism.”
  • “Ensure staff and leaders are hyper-literate in digital journalism trends and new media theories so they can anticipate what members will need to know.”


These recommendations, and others from this report, would be more likely to succeed if SPJ either starts from a base of demonstrable knowledge and experience, or has in place a network of strong relationships with other players in the media ecosystem.

SPJ could get to this point—but they’re not there yet.

Understandably, SPJ has been focusing mainly on upholding the core values of journalism. This is important work that should continue as SPJ expands more into digital media. SPJ can continue to offer considerable value in terms of transmitting and applying core journalistic values to digital media.

But if SPJ is serious about eventually assuming a leadership role in digital media, the organization faces a considerable learning curve. This isn’t merely about learning technology; SPJ must cultivate new alliances, and be open to influence by cultures beyond journalism.

So far, SPJ and other leading journalism organization have mainly looked to people already in the news business for guidance. Unfortunately, this approach generally has failed to solve the most dire problems threatening the future of journalism.

Without opening up significantly to guidance and influence from beyond the journalism world, SPJ’s claims for digital media leadership would probably lack credibility and effectiveness.

In order to provide substantial, constructive leadership in digital media, SPJ and other journalism organizations might do better to begin with a focused period of learning and collaboration. This means actively seeking insight, advice, assistance, and partnership from players beyond journalism who have current, relevant digital media knowledge and experience.

Rebuilding core infrastructure takes time. This is not something an established organization with a deeply entrenched culture can pull off in a few weeks or months. I’d recommend that SPJ and other journalism groups set aside at least a year to focus their digital media initiatives primarily on learning and collaboration.

For instance, before implementing the recommendations of the recent strategic report, SPJ could spend a year or so on active learning-oriented outreach to groups that focus on technology, information sciences, libraries, business, entrepreneurship, community-building, advocacy, wireless carriers, mobile developers, marketing, education, government 2.0, social justice, campaigning, etc.

SPJ could make a concerted effort to attend or co-sponsor these groups’ events—and then share the lessons that journalists (and journalism) might adopt from these related fields. SPJ also could encourage its members to reach out to people in other professions, and report on their learning experiences.

While this is happening, SPJ could continue to offer basic digital media training and guidance, as it has been doing. Still, it would be wise to postpone claims to digital media leadership before the organization has sufficiently updated its own digital media skill set, mindset, outlook, and network.

During this learning and collaboration push, SPJ could find ways to bring SPJ members and other journalists together through collaborative exercises such as The Media Consortium’s recent Mobile Hackathon. Such events build relationships, blends cultures, and opens minds.

SPJ remains an authoritative leader on journalism. However, great leaders understand their limits and blind spots, and seek to compensate for them before barreling ahead in new directions. If SPJ is transparent about its learning and relationship-building process, this could help re-invigorate and encourage SPJ members to explore and experiment. Ultimately this could yield a more viable and diverse support system for great journalism—regardless of media.

Finally, I’d encourage SPJ’s Digital Media Committee to examine the role of mobile media in the future of digital journalism. This strategic report omitted any discussion of mobile—and fighting the last war generally is not a sound leadership strategy.

March 14, 2012

Public interest news start ups: Few answers but the right questions are coming into focus

In experimentation with online public service journalism, there are few set answers about how news providers can be sustained. But a new report from the Investigative News Network goes a long way in detailing what we have learned and in defining the questions that start ups - and funders - need to ask as they shape and launch their ventures.

Audience Development and Distribution Strategies,” is a rich source of information about engagement, distribution and revenue tactics of INN member sites. (Read the section titled “What will you find? on pages 9-10 of the pdf for a summary.)

The report describes a highly challenging environment: “Our movement has become a viable force in the production of independent reporting focused on the important stories that commercial media cannot. In fact, INN members are 100% focused on consistently producing this important and expensive content. That said, these are tough economic times and the models to support journalism - in both the commercial and nonprofit sectors - are in flux.”

Against the backdrop of flux, hundreds of news innovators are trying to figure out how to marry a mission of public service news and information with a business model. I encourage anyone who is operating, thinking of operating or considering funding a news start up to read this report. For a more general understanding of the landscape, I highlight these points:

- While foundations have contributed heavily to launching many of these experiments, continued foundation funding is far from likely, at least not in the amounts that will be needed to assure a robust public watchdog function. I think we may see increasing definition and understanding of what types of news operations the market will support - small, local, advertising based news sites, for example - and what types will need continued foundation support - probably the high-end investigative sites whose work generally is highly consistent with the work of foundations in driving civic improvement. image

- From the outset, it is critical to assess different revenue streams and funding models. The report describes four types of sites (Start-Up Shop, Topic Specialist, $ Million Plus, and Community Driven) and how they might tap into funding streams including distribution deals, donations, membership programs, education programs and advertising or underwriting. See pages 29-32 of the pdf. The graphic shows   how the “Community-Driven News” model starts, like most others, with heavy foundation support and then grows revenue from memberships and donations with smaller streams from underwriting and distribution deals. (I am very skeptical about the potential for significant revenue streams from membership for most sites, even in five years.)

- Data and topic expertise may pose revenue opportunities for news organizations. As well, organizations may be able to do a better job of packaging their content for wider distribution. “The next phase of report once, publish everywhere is optimizing your content for the right distribution channel. Whether that means localizing a national story to a region or creating a video presentation of a 3,000-word investigative piece, journalists need to become more willing to take charge of the packaging and bundling of their content for different channels.”

- People who are planning a site need to look beyond producing journalism, starting with an assessment of the marketplace. “You shouldn’t start one of these if you are just a journalist looking for a job,” one interviewee told the report’s authors. Steps include identifying stakeholders, defining audience and developing a value proposition. “In consulting with journalists looking to build new news organizations, we often try to pull back the lens, coax out the distractions of important stories and product features, and instead focus on the broader mission of the journalism they do and its desired impact,” the report states.

This report makes a significant contribution to understanding in a highly dynamic and confusing field. At the same time, it underscores a key challenge: There are numerous, highly diffuse models and missions being tested each with different implications for revenue strategy and tactics. My own list of promising news sites (currently off-line for a site rebuild) started two years ago with four admittedly broad categories of independent online start ups (New Traditional, Community, Micro and Niche) and I’m adding at least three more, including Investigative, as the field grows and becomes more diverse.

The report also offers sobering context about the fragility of any new ventures, including the emerging news organizations:

The explosion of nonprofit news sites bodes well for innovation in the industry. But it’s unlikely that all of these organizations will find a path to sustainability. For some perspective, approximately 75% of nonprofits registered in the United States fail in the first year. Although many reasons are cited, some of the most common include: * Lack of planning * Over-expansion * Poor management * Insufficient capital * Poor diversification of funding These factors are similar to new small businesses, 50% of which fail in the first five years, according to the U.S. Small Business Association.
This blog is made possible by a grant to USC Annenberg from the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation.

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Exploring innovation, transformation and leadership in a new ecosystem of news, by journalist and change advocate Michele McLellan.

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